The actual planet-wide city of Coruscant was known as Galactic City, or Republic City under the Galactic Republic, Imperial City during the rule of the Galactic Empire and New Republic City under the New Republic.
Coruscant was the capital of the Galactic Republic, the Galactic Empire, and the New Republic. It was generally agreed that Coruscant was the most important world in the Galaxy, evidenced by the fact that its hyperspace coordinates were (0,0,0).
A large number of the Galaxy's trade routes—including the Perlemian Trade Route, the Corellian Run, the Metellos Trade Route, the Koros Trunk Line, and the Leisure Corridor—went through Coruscant, making it one of the richest worlds in the Galaxy.
The entire surface of Coruscant had been covered over throughout the thousands of generations of galactic history by sprawling skyscrapers and cities, some of which reach up into the lower levels of Coruscant's atmosphere. The planet's oceans had all been drained and kept in vast underground caverns for future reuse. The only body of water visible was the artificial Western Sea, with many artificially-created islands floating on it, used by tourists on holidays. The only pieces of Coruscant landmass that were left untouched were the Manarai Mountains, twin peaks that stuck up out of the ground near the famous Imperial Palace. Many floating restaurants revolved around the Mountains, giving patrons a unique view of the natural wonders.
Since there were no bodies of water available to feed and water its trillion inhabitants, Coruscant's architects, along with many others from around the Galaxy, worked together to build a self-contained eco-system in the massive buildings set all over the planet. Engineers also developed a complex series of huge pipes that polar ice was pumped through to the cities of Coruscant. Almost everything on the planet, from clothes to packaging and machinery, was recyclable. Another problem for a world like Coruscant was the unimaginable amounts of carbon dioxide that its trillion-being population generated each day, so atmospheric dampeners were put into place in orbit to remove it. Galactic Standard Time was developed on Coruscant and revolved around the hours Coruscant had in a single day, which was 24 hours, with 368 local days a year.
Galactic City was divided into several thousand quadrants, with each quadrant subdivided into numbered sectors. Some of these numbered sectors received colloquial names. For example, H-46 was also called Sah'c Town, named for the family that owned much of it. Some areas were specifically designated senatorial, governmental, financial (including banking zones), commercial, and residential. Larger areas of the planet were designated for industrial or manufacturing use only. The largest of these areas was known colloquially as "The Works". The Works had manufactured spacecraft parts, droids, and building materials at an astonishing rate for hundreds of years, but as construction in space became more efficient, The Works fell in disrepair. It gained the reputation as a hub of high criminal activity and many locals stayed away from it. Another area of Coruscant was CoCo Town (short for "collective commerce"). Many diverse species lived here and worked in manufacturing.
Around 200,000 BBY, the Near Human Taung Taungs attempted to conquer the 13 baseline Human nations of the Battalions of Zhell. A volcano decimated the Zhell, the ash filling the skies for two years, so the Taungs adopted the name Dha Werda Verda (Warriors of Shadow) for themselves. The Human Zhell eventually recovered and drove the Taungs offworld—the Taungs fled to Roon.
One hundred millennia later, Coruscant was surveyed by the Columi, who dismissed the planet as a primitive disappointment, despite the planet-spanning starwars:ecumenopolis:ecumenopolis of Galactic City. New buildings were built on the old. As a result, there was virtually no exposed land. In the forgotten underlevels of the city, there was darkness, pollution and crime. Higher up, there were government offices and penthouses owned by the elite. The lower 50 levels of the ecumenopolis last saw sunlight around 95,000 BBY.
Coruscant was one of many worlds conquered by the Infinite Empire of the Rakata, who used human slaves to build the Star Forge in 30,000 BBY. Under Rakatan domination, the humans of Coruscant's colonization attempts were limited to sleeper ships, which ended up on Alderaan, in the Tion Cluster, Seoul 5, Kuat, Alsakan, Axum, Atrisia, Metellos, Corulag, and many other worlds. The Rakata were eventually decimated by a massive plague, leading to slave revolutions on Coruscant and other subjected worlds.
Over the next two centuries, Coruscant was linked to other Core Worlds, including Corellia and Duro, by hyperspace cannons. It was during this time that the Coruscant government peacefully absorbed the nearby Azure Imperium. During these pre-Republic years, the languages of Coruscant and its neighbors meshed to become Old Galactic Standard.
In 25,000 BBY, the Corellians and Duros invented the hyperdrive proper, allowing Coruscant to become the capital of a democratic union—the Galactic Republic. The planet remained the Republic's capital for twenty five thousand years. Shortly after the formation of the Republic, the Perlemian Trade Route was mapped, linking Coruscant to Ossus and bringing the Jedi Knights into the Republic. Over the next millennium, the Corellian Run was mapped, linking Coruscant to Corellia and beyond. Blasters were also invented on Coruscant around this time, and the famous Galactic Museum was constructed in 12,000 BBY.
From the very beginning, Coruscant, as the Republic's capital, was the primary objective in several wars. The earliest among these was the Tionese War with the Honorable Union of Desevro and Tion in 24,000 BBY, in which Coruscant was bombarded with Tionese pressure bombs. Other early battles included the Alsakan Conflicts, the Duinuogwuin Contention, the Great Hyperspace War, the Third Great Schism, the Great Droid Revolution, and the Great Sith War.
Following the devastation of Ossus, the Jedi Council took up residence in the Jedi Temple on Coruscant, to which many Jedi relics from Ossus were taken. The Temple was greatly expanded, including the building of the original Jedi Council Chamber. The Temple was repeatedly expanded including in 3,519 BBY, 2,519 BBY (when the Jedi Archives were built), 2,019 BBY, and 1,000 BBY (when the Temple spires were built).
End of the RepublicEdit
In 23 BBY, near the end of the Separatist Crisis, the Confederacy of Independent Systems began to become a significant threat against the Republic, causing several systems to secede, including Ando and Sy Myrth, resulting in a mass exodus of Aqualish and Sy Myrthians from Coruscant.
During most of the Clone Wars, Coruscant was subject to frequent Separatist terrorist acts and assassinations of leading Republic figures. These included the holding of Senator Meena Tills hostage by Korunnai terrorists in 22 BBY (actually cover for an attempt to turn the Corporate Sector against the Republic). 21 BBY saw a wave of such disasters, including the Coruscant Insurrection and the assassinations of Finis Valorum and Senator Viento Viento.
Such incidents prompted the Republic to implement numerous changes on Coruscant in the name of increased security. Huge stretches of the cityscape were transformed into military staging areas, and clone troopers were seen everywhere. The fanatical pro-human COMPOR was founded, the local SAGroup led by Nenevanth Tion marching in a patriotism parade. COMPOR pressured Tannon Praji into deporting from the capital all members of species whose homeworld had joined the Confederacy. Vice-Admiral Terrinald Screed was placed in charge of Coruscant Planetary Defense.
Yet in 19 BBY, the Confederacy of Independent Systems succeeded in making a raid on Coruscant. Using secret hyperspace routes through the Deep Core provided by Darth Sidious, a Separatist fleet under the command of the dreaded General Grievous made a raid on the city planet. While the Separatist fleet engaged the Republic fleet, an army of battle droids landed on Galactic City. The invasion distracted the defending Jedi and clone forces while General Grievous and a squad of his elite MagnaGuards captured the Supreme Chancellor Palpatine. However, Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi succeeded in rescuing the Supreme Chancellor from the infamous Separatist flagship Invisible Hand. The Second Battle of Coruscant eventually turned to the Republic's favor and the Separatist's armada was forced into a full retreat.
Near the end of the Clone Wars, Coruscant was transformed into Imperial Center following Chancellor Palpatine's Declaration of a New Order, reorganizing the Galactic Republic into the Galactic Empire.
- "Imperial Center was a world with enough diversions for just about anyone."
- — Mara Jade
During the reign of Emperor Palpatine, the official name of Coruscant was Imperial Center, or occasionally just Center. While the name was officially changed, most denizens of the Empire continued to call the planet-city by its old name. As part of the Humanocentric policies of the Galaxy, non-Human species were also compelled to live in segregated parts (also known as "ethnic neighborhoods") of Imperial City, such as Invisec.
During Imperial times, a proclamation by Palpatine made Imperial Center the only planet in the Galaxy where political science students could do postgraduate work. The reason was twofold: foremost was the hope that the future politicians and technocrats of the Galaxy would be more likely to accept the values and rule of the New Order; second was that the brightest of them could be detained, either voluntarily or by force, on Center to assist in the running of the Empire.
Emperor Palpatine also began to shape Coruscant with his own designs, and this included the installment of thousands of surveillance systems throughout the ecumenopolis. Massive shield generators were placed all over Coruscant, and where they overlapped, powerful storms took place, giving the planet a gothic look, which mirrored the utter desperation of many of its inhabitants as they choked under Palpatine's iron rule.
The Emperor also had the Palace of the Republic rebuilt and renamed the Imperial Palace. The Imperial Palace was a massive pyramidal structure and was the largest construction project in Coruscant. Other distinctive structures of the Galactic Republic, such as the Galactic Senate and the Jedi Temple, were either destroyed or eclipsed by newer buildings.
Following the death of Palpatine at the Battle of Endor in 4 ABY, an uprising took place on Coruscant. Billions of Coruscanti reveled in their new-found freedom, and an armed uprising sprang out from the non-Human-dominated sectors. Imperial patrols were attacked in the streets, statues of Palpatine were toppled and other Imperial symbols were desecrated.
In the midst of all the celebrating and rioting, Imperial authorities ordered a massive crackdown on the rebellious elements in the city-planet's population and gave full power to the local military force to end the uprising and restore order to the system. The military retaliation was horrendous and the death-tolls rose as the Empire struck down the insurrectionists and brought the populace back under its control.
The Interim Ruling Council took over what remained of the Empire in the wake of its fragmentation, and based itself on Imperial Center. Survivors of Endor were recalled to Coruscant, but a large portion of the Imperial fleet had broken up into warlordism. Just a few months after Endor, the Alliance invaded Coruscant and reclaimed the planet in the name of the New Republic.
Coruscant would undergo reconstruction in the wake of the New Republic's formation. The Empire would try one time to reclaim the planet, a few months after its fall, in the Second Battle of Coruscant, which ultimately failed.
The New Republic government established itself on Coruscant, and new worlds flocked to the Republic's banner as the Empire continued a downward spiral.
In 8 ABY, however, Bacharan Valak was coronated Emperor in a revived Galactic Empire, and initiated a campaign with the Death Star III that saw the retaking of Coruscant in 9 ABY. The Imperial hold on Coruscant would be a shakey one, as anti-Imperial partisans and Republic guerillas made effective Imperial rule over the planet difficult. Despite taking Coruscant, the Empire did not move its capital back to the world, instead retaining Dreven as their capital.
Towards the end of 11 ABY, the Fourth Battle of Coruscant erupted after an Imperial ploy to lure the Republic out to a trap on the planet succeeded; massive damage was inflicted to the city, including the loss of thousands of starports across the planet. Nevertheless, the planet would remain under Imperial rule until 13 ABY, when, in the midst of the War of the Throne, Coruscant was liberated by the New Republic.
In one year, however, Coruscant would find itself cut-off from the rest of New Republic territory by the Imperial Blitzkrieg. Coruscant is the last Republic stronghold in the Core as of 14 ABY, cut-off and surrounded by a revitalized Galactic Empire.
Due to the blockade around the entire system, cutting Coruscant from the major trade routes, inflation ravaged the city world, goods started to become scarce, and the population grew uneasy and restless. In early 15 ABY this turned into full-out riots, which were rumored to be instigated by none other than Darth Malign. Shortly thereafter, the Imperial Palace was attacked by the Empire's Danik Kreldin, which caused only further unease in the population - they were no longer save from the Empire.
The Grand Vizier of the Galactic Empire, Warlord Vassily Korolov, infiltrated the Republic Senate admist the blockade of Coruscant under the guise of Viktor Faust and led a successful campaign that saw him elected as the Senator of Coruscant. With the Empire's Warlord in control of Coruscant, Korolov began devising means to derail the Republic and pave the way for an Imperial take over. A series of ingenious plots finally led to his successful bid to boost the ranks of the Coruscant Guard. Korolov saw to it that the new members of the Coruscant Guard would be the Empire's famed 501st Legion in disguise.
These Imperial troopers fit in seamlessly, and prepared themselves for the time they would be called to enact the Empire's plan. During a special session of Senate, Korolov detonated explosives planted throughout the Senate. Many were killed instantly, but the efforts of Luke Skywalker and other Republic soldiers prevented widespread disaster. Nevertheless, the Imperial Stormtroopers disguised as Coruscant Guardsmen were activated and began attacking Republic positions across the planet, seizing vital areas and bases and killing many Republic officials.
During the chaos, Kreldin and the Imperial armada moved and engaged the Republic Defense Fleet, starting the Sixth Battle of Coruscant. Fighting would be intense and would last for several weeks before overwhelming Imperial superiority on both the ground and in space forced the retreat of the remaining Republic forces. The Imperial starburst was once again hoisted over the Imperial Palace and the Empire dug itself in on Coruscant.
The planet was once again renamed Imperial Center, and within days of its conquer all outward signs of the Republic ceased to exist. Imperial Stormtroopers rooted out remaining resistance cells across the city world, and martial law was declared planet-wide. A total crackdown of dissidents commenced, where outspoken citizens were taken to secret COMPNOR re-education facilities. Those who rejected the Coalition for Progress's vile methods were sent to forced-labor camps hidden in the mostly abandoned industrial districts.
Imperial Center once more took on the mantle of the capital of the Galactic Empire, and Aleister Vadim revealed himself as the new Galactic Emperor.